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Engineering-geocryological surveys

Geotechnical investigations in areas of permafrost soils must be carried out in accordance with the General requirements for surveys established by the heads of the SNiP on engineering surveys for construction, on design of bases and foundations on permafrost, construction in seismic areas, as well as Instruction on engineering surveys for industrial building, Manual development schemes and projects of area planning, projects planning and development of cities and other settlements, houses and neighborhoods and normative documents on the design of appropriate types of construction.

Survey of water sources in areas of permafrost is performed in accordance with requirements of the Instructions on engineering surveys for industrial construction inclusive of these Regulations.
The purpose of engineering and geological surveys in areas of permafrost to obtain information about permafrost engineering and geological conditions of construction in a particular area which is necessary and sufficient for optimal placement of construction objects in its range, reliable and cost-effective design of foundations and bases of these objects and environmental protection measures to the remediation of the geological environment.

In engineering and geological surveys study area is characterized by the following complex of permafrost engineering and geological conditions of construction:

При инженерно-геологических изысканиях исследуемая территория характеризуется следующим комплексом мерзлотных инженерно-геологических условий строительства:
climatic characteristics of the area (temperature of air, radiation balance of the surface, precipitation and other parameters required for design);
geomorphological characteristics and the relief;
geobotanical characteristic;
hydrological conditions;
geological structure, lithological composition of soils, their age and genetic characteristics;
tectonic conditions;
hydrogeological conditions;
areal distribution of permanently frozen and thawed soils;
power and vertical structure of permafrost thickness;
the depth of seasonal thawing and freezing of soils;
temperature regime of soils;
temperature and bearing capacity of soil (hard frozen soil, plastic frozen soil, loosely frozen soil, frosty soil);
heaving properties;
cryogenic textures of the soils;
cryogenic physico-geological processes and phenomena;
physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics of soils;
salinity of soils;
the characteristic seismicity of the study area and the frequency of occurrence of seismic effects in it as well as the increment of seismic activity (positive and negative) of construction sites (in earthquake-prone areas).
Permafrost engineering-geological conditions of construction under survey are defined in a natural state.